When Cities Grow Wild - Natural Landscaping from an Urban Planning Perspective

by John Ingram

7.0 References


Adams, Lowell F. and Daniel L. Leedy eds. Integrating Man and Nature in the Metropolitan Environment: Proceedings of a National Symposium on Urban Wildlife (National Institute for Urban Wildlife, Columbia Maryland) 1987

Borman, F. and Diana Balmoria and Gordon Geballe. Redesigning the American Lawn: A Search for Environmental Harmony (Yale University Press, Cambridge, Mass.) 1993

CMHC, Canadian Federation of Municipalities. The Ecological City: Canadian Perspectives (CMHC, Ottawa) 1995

CMHC. Measuring Urban Sustainability: Canadian Indicators Workshop, June 19 -21, Workshop Proceedings (CMHC, Ottawa) 1996

CMHC. Developing Indicators of Urban Sustainability: A Focus on the Canadian Experience (CMHC, Ottawa) 1996

Daniels, Stevie. The Wild Lawn Handbook (Macmillan, New York) 1995

Dramstad, Wenche E. and James D. Olson and Reichard T.T. Forman. Landscape Ecology Principles in Landscape Architecture and Land-Use Planning. Harvard University Press, 1996

Fabos, Julios and Jack Ahern eds. Greenways: The Beginning of an International Movement (Elsevier, New york) 1996

Hiss, Tony. The Experience of Place: A New Way of Looking at and Dealing With Our Radically Changing Cities and Countryside (Vintage Books, New York) 1990

Hough, Michael. Cities and Natural Process (Routledge, New York) 1995

Hough, Michael. Out of Place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape (Yale University Press, Boston) 1990

Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research (Canada) Environmental Policy Review of 15 Canadian Municipalities, Volume 2: Appendices (ICURR Publications, Toronto) 1993

Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research (Canada) Sustainable Development in Canada: From Concept to Practice, Volume 3: Compendium of Initiatives (ICURR Publications, Toronto) 1993

Jenkins, Virginia. A Green Velvety Carpet: The Lawn as an American Cultural Landscape, Dissertation submitted to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at the George Washington University, 1991

Johnston, Jacklyn. A Guide to the Successful Establishment of Community Wildlife Sites, Ecology Handbook 14 (London Ecology Unit, London) 1991

Kristensen, Thomas Moller, Svend Erik Larsen et al. City and Nature: Changing Relations in Time and Space (Odense University Press, Denmark) 1993

Lyle, John Tillman. Design for Human Ecosystems: Landscape, Land Use and Natural Resources (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York) 1985

Lynch, Kevin. Managing the Sense of the Region (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.) 1976

Marsh, William M. Landscape Planning - Environmental Applications (John Wiley & Sons Inc., Toronto) 1998

Marczyk, John S. and Denis B. Johnson, eds. Sustainable Landscapes: Proceedings of the Third Symposium of the Canadian Society for Landscape Ecology and Management: University of Alberta, June 1992 (Polyscience Publications, Montreal) 1993

Nassauer, Joan Iverson ed. Placing Nature: Culture and Landscape Ecology (Island Press, Washington, DC) 1997

Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission. Natural Landscaping for Public Officials: A Source Book (U.S. Government Printing Office, Chicago) 1997

Platt, Rutherford H., Rowan A Rowntree and Pamela C. Muick eds. The Ecological City: Preserving and Restoring Urban Biodiversity

Reed, Clark A.. Backyard Bioneering: The Movement to Bring Back Biodiversity to the Domestic Suburban Landscape, Graduate Thesis, Tufts University, 1994

Stein, Sara. Noah's Garden: Restoring the Ecology of Our Own Backyards (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston) 1993

Wilson, Alexander. The Culture of Nature: North American Landscape from Disney to the Exxon Valdez (Blackwell, Cambridge, MA) 1992

Journal Articles, Conference Papers, Policy Documents

Barnes, Shirley, "Ah Wilderness; Environmentalists Have a Vision to Turn 200,000 Acres Into a Showcase" in Chicago Tribune, November 3, 1996

Bell v. Toronto (City) [1996] O.J. No. 3146

Boone County (Illinois) Health Department, "Natural Landscaping in the County" 1993

City of Dartmouth, "Burnside Industrial Park/City of Lakes Business Park - Landscape Maintenance Tender" June 1990

City of Chicago, "GreenCorps Chicago 1996 Yearbook" 1996

City of Guelph, Recreation and Parks Department, "Naturalization in the City of Guelph - Policy" October 1991, Revised 1993

City of Halifax, "A Path to Sustainability: A Report by the Round Table on the Environment and Economy of the City of Halifax" April 1993

City of Halifax, "Response of City of Halifax Departments, Boards and Commissions to the Report of the Round Table on the Environment and Economy", November 1993

City of Kitchener, "Environmental Strategic Plan" 1992, revised 1997

City of Portland, Environmental Zones, Ord. No. 167293, adopted January 19, 1994

City of Toronto, Naturalization Committee "Naturalization Notes Report" June 14, 1996 [draft]

City of Toronto, Toronto Atmospheric Fund, "Annual Report 1996" 1996

City of Toronto (Metro) Metro Parks and Culture Department, " Metro Parkland Naturalization Compendium" Fall 1996

City of Toronto (Metro), Metro Parks and Culture, "Selection of Naturalization Sites for Metro Toronto Road Corridors" 1997

City of Tuscon, Street Development Standard and Land Use Code, Ord. No.8845, Sec. 3.8.0, adopted March 24, 1997

City of Waterloo, "Environment First Policy: an Overview" 1997

City of Waterloo, "Promoting Citizen Involvement in Neighbourhood Green Spaces" 1998

City of Waterloo, Planning Department, "Environmental Think Tank: Environment First Strategies" 1989

Char A. Bezanson, "Biodiversity and Native Plants: What's the Connection?" in Minnesota Plant Press, v15, n1, Fall 1995

Colston Burrell, "Redesigning the (North) American Front Yard" in Wildflower, Spring 1997

Brad Cundiff, "Let Nature do the Landscaping: Bits of Wilderness in the Heart of Town" in Canadian Geographic, v108, n4 , September 1988

Robert Feagan, "Urban Naturalization: Reflections on a Shifting Landscape Ethic" in New City Magazine, v17, n4, Summer 1997

E.P. Fowler, "Land Use in the Ecologically Sensible City" in Alternatives, v18(1), June/July 1991, pp 26-35

David Goode, "The Nature of Cities" in Landscape Design, September 1997

William Granger, "Managing Urban Forests Under Fiscal Restraint", conference paper, Foresting the Urban Future Conference, Regina, Saskatchewan, September 11, 1989

Jerry de Gryse, "Achieving Ecological Restoration Whilst Protecting Urban Values", Urban Restoration Conference Proceedings, Society for Ecological Restoration, 1996

Halifax Regional Municipality Act, Part Thirteen, "Dangerous or Unsightly Premises", 1995

Bonnie Harper-Lore, "Federal Direction of Roadside Planting", from Restoration and Society Conference Proceedings, Society for Ecological Restoration, 1995

Michael Hough, "Creating an Urban Woodland" in Wildflower, spring 1986

Katz, Geoffrey E. "Natural Areas in City, Suburb and Town and the Practical Application of Landscape Ecology" in Plan Canada, v35, n6, November 1995

Michael Leccese, "In Their Own Front Yards" in Landscape Architecture, September 1997

Peter M. Morley, "Urban Forestry in North York" in The Forestry Chronicle, August 1988

John Nivala, "Our Nature in Balance: An Essay on Eighteenth-Century Landscape Gardening and Twentieth-Century Lawyering" in Journal of Legal Education, v38, n3, September 1988

Douglas D. Patterson, "Key Note Address", Groundworks '95, The Evergreen Foundation's Ecology Resource Network Conference, New Westminister, B.C., 1995

Rebecca Raglon, "The Bonsai Wilderness: Urban Naturalism and Green City Concepts" in Environments v21(2) 1991, pp 16-21

Bret Rappaport, "As Natural Landscaping Takes Root We Must Weed Out the Bad Laws - How Natural Landscaping and Leopold's Land Ethic Collide with Unenlightened Weed Laws and What Must Be Done About it" in The John Marshall Law Review, Vol. 26:865, 1993

Bret Rappaport, "The Lawn Ethic vs. The Land Ethic or Toronto vs. Bell" in Wildflower, summer 1997

Bret Rappaport, "Weeding Out Bad Vegetation Control Ordinances" in Landscape Restoration Management, spring 1998

Jean-Pierre Reurdon, "Biodiversity in an Urban Setting" in Ecodecision, n 23, February 1997

Andy Wasowski, "Bret Rappaport: Weeding Out Bad Weed Laws" in Wildflower, Summer 1995

Electronic Documents

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Meeting Summary Beneficial Landscaping Focus Group Sessions", U.S. EPA, Region 5 Beneficial Landscaping Work Group,. February 28, 1995 , Document URL: http://www.epa.gov/greenacres

Jon Calabria, Dale Jaeger, Chet Thomas, "Freedom Parkway: Toward a "Sustainable" Roadway Landscape Design". Document Source: Society for Ecological Restoration 1996 Conference Abstracts , Document URL: http://nabalu.flas.ufl.edu/ser/Rutgers/Coordinate.html

Zolna Russell. "Public Attitudes and Landscape Preferences Towards Managing Greenways for Urban Wildlife". Document Source: Society for Ecological Restoration 1996 Conference Abstracts, Document URL: http://nabalu.flas.ufl.edu/ser/Rutgers/Social.html

Personal Contact

William Granger, Manager, Parks and Environment, City of North Vancouver December 1996

Erik J. Lees, Park Manager, The Corporation of the District of West Vancouver, January 1998

Ross Waddell, City of Vancouver Waterworks Branch, Vancouver, Vancouver, January 1998

Moura Quayle, Dean, Faculty of Agriculture, U.B.C., December, 1997

Sandy Bell, natural landscaper, City of Toronto , January, 1998

Bret Rappaport, Lawyer, Natural Landscaping Advocate, Chicago, January 1998

Lorraine Johnson, President Canadian Wildflower Association, Toronto, January 1998

Patricia Armstrong, Native Plant Consultant, Naperville, Illinois, January 1998

Susan Malec, Assistant Commissioner for the Department of Environment for the City of Chicago, Illinois, January 1998

Dr. Robert Feagan, Professor, Faculty of Geography, Brock University, January 1998

Garth Armour, Director, Metro Parks and Culture (Toronto), January 1998

Karen Kovak, Landscape Engineer, City of Waterloo, January 1998

Helen Tsiapas, Natural Landscaping Coordinator, Region 5, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, January 1998

Allan Berberich, Horticultural Superintendent, City of Guelph, January 1998

Barbara Krieg, Coordinator Roadside Drainage Program, Transportation Department, City of Portland, February 1998

Carol Macomber, Open Space Plan Coordinator, Priority and Planning, Halifax Regional Municipality, February 1998

Marcus Garnet, Planner, Community Planning Department, Halifax Regional Municipality, February 1998

Kevin Conely, Work Supervisor, Parks and Natural Services, Halifax Regional Municipality, February 1998

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