4 Ranunculaceae
Anemone quinquefolia Wood Anemone: 5-9 white sepals, 1 flower/plant, 3-5 toothed leaflets, like Toothwort, early summer. extremely pungent Small dry capsule, rhizome. Greek: Anemone & Zephyr the West Wind; Flora turns nymph into flower that withers by the time Zephyr arrives.
Anemonella thalictroides Rue Anemone: Apetalous: 5-10 sepals, basal 3-lobed leaflets in 3 groups of 3, no stem leaves: whorl of bracts under flower, grow singly on slopes. Tuber. Flowers resemble Wood Anemone, leaves Early Meadow-Rue. Adonis killed by Ares, blood & Aphrodite's tears bring windflowers.
Isopyrum biternatum False Rue Anemone: only 4-5 smaller sepals, deeper lobed leaves on flower stems, not directly under flower, in colonies, bottomlands. Tuber, yellow stamens. Cauline leaves with scalelike stipules.
Thalictrum dioicum Early Meadow-Rue: alluvial soil. Apetalous: 4 sepals. Male flower: yellowish stamens droop like jellyfish. Female flower: purplish pistils. Stem from caudex or rootstock, foliage die back in winter; has dried bracts from previous years.
Caltha palustris (cup of swamps)Marsh Marigold: Cowslip=cow slop; leaves poisonous to cows; yellow temporary dye. Edible flower open with sun, Apetalous: 5-9 sepals many stamens/pistils, shiny buttercup. Rounded leaves, rhizome. Sun tolerant, moist soil. Also native to Eurasia.
Ranunculus septentrionalis Swamp Buttercup: weak, hollow stem 3-part leaves deeply lobed, stolons root at nodes. Petals longer than the spreading, tapering yellow sepals. Toxic unless dried. Achenes.
Hepatica acutiloba (americana in acid soil) Sharp-lobed Hepatica (Liverwort): formerly Anemone. 450k pounds imported from Europe 1883. 3 leaves from previous year semi-evergreen, turn liver-red; Apetalous: 5-12 sepals yellow stamens, hairy stalks. Eliasome.
Phlox divaricata (spreading) Woodland Phlox (W. Sweet William): creeping rhizomes; reseeds easily, opposite leaves. Fragrant, stamens hidden in 5-petal corolla tube: calyx also in tube. Garden Sweet William is European Dianthus barbatus, Caryophyllaceae (Pink).
Polemonium reptans Greek Valerian: (P. van-bruntiae Jacob's Ladder white stamens protrude) 5 petals form shallow cup over calyx tube. Lower pinnate leaflets (ladder). Anthocyanin H2O soluble in vacuoles: blue in alkaline. Rhizomes do not creep: self-seed. Sun tolerant.