3 Liliaceae
Polygonatum biflorum (jointed root) Smooth Solomon's seal: Flowers hang from leaf axils: 6 tepals. Blue-black poisonous berries. Annual stem scar (seal resembles Star of David) on starchy white rhizome, edible after boiling in 3 changes of H2O.
 
Trillium recurvatum Prairie Trillium (erectum=Red sessile=Toad): 3 leaves, sepals, petals; maroon pistils, purple anthers; 6 years to flower. waking goblin Robin Goodfellow. Elaiosome. Prefers to associate with oaks and hickories rather than beeches and maples.
Liliaceae
Erythronium albidum White Trout Lily (americanum=Yellow) Dog-tooth Violet, Adder's Tongue: 6 tepals recurve, 6 yellow stamens, white style/3 stigmas; 7 years to flower (2 mottled leaves). Oily Elaiosome, edible scaly bulb-like corms resemble dog teeth, colonize by stolons. Leaves also edible. dormant late spring.
Liliaceae
Allium tricoccum Wild Leek: White flowers in umbels after broadly lance-shaped leaves wilt: do not see leaves & flowers together. Black buckshot-like seeds, swollen bulb, but not true bulb. In rich soil of maple-beech-hemlock hardwoods. Vitamin C, HD cholesterol.
Liliaceae
Uvularia grandiflora Large Bellwort: 6 twisted tepals shaped like uvula, nodding yellow bells, perfoliate leaves, 3-angled capsule similar to beechnut, splits open in July.
Portulaceae
Claytonia virginica Spring Beauty: 2 green sepals fall, 5 petals pink veins: nectar guide. 5 pink stamens. 3-lobed stigma, opposite cauline leaves; 3-6-seeded capsule. 15 blossoms from edible tuber eyes (fairy-spuds), last many days (most Purslane 1/2 day). Survive lawn. Dormant late spring.
Papaveraceae
Sanguinaria canadensis Bloodroot (Red Puccoon): Sanguinarine: alkaloid extract prevents plaque in Colgate Viadent: precancerous lesions. Rhizome w/ red juice: escharotic (kills skin tissue) body paint, dye. 8-16 petals fall off, uneven length: square flower? No nectar, seed pod pops: Elaiosome, shade tolerant.
Papaveraceae
Dicentra cucullaria Dutchman's Breeches: Clusters of white tubers. pantaloons ankles-up pockets out: 2 large spurred petals joined over 2 inner petals in terminal racemes. Pollinated by queen bumble bee; honeybees shorter tongues gather pollen w front feet. Neither can reach nectar. Elaiosome.
 
Dicentra (2 spurs) canadensis Squirrel Corn: dissected leaves, 2 petals; spurs more rounded heart shaped, blooms 1 week later. Corms/tubers resemble yellow corn kernels just below soil. Alkaloids poisonous. Fruit: 10-20 seeded capsule. Bleeding Heart is Japanese D. spectabilis.