Summer Wetland Flora: Page 2, Summer Weeds, Summer Woodland, Other Sketches
Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle)
Sambucus canadensis Elderberry: Opposite, compound leaves, huge cymes of white flowers. 5 petals and 5-lobed stigma, 5 protruding stamens. Blackish-purple fruit for "Elderberry jelly", but stems contain calcium oxalate crystals. Spreads by suckering.
Sium suave Tall Water Parsnip: Stems stout, glabrous, hollow, ribbed and angled, slightly zig-zag in form. Highly variable, look for bracts and bracteoles subtending the rays and raylets of the inflorescence and the serrulate to serrate margins of the leaflets.
Prunus virginiana Choke Cherry: Frequently crooked trunk and a narrow, open head. Finely toothed leaves shiny above, pale beneath. Red fruit in clusters turn black and bitter when ripe, tasty in jellies and wines. Leaves contain toxic hydrocyanic acid.
Scrophulariaceae (Figwort)
Mimulus ringens Monkey Flower: Square stems. Opposite, sessile, serrate, sometimes clasping leaves. Purple corolla with yellowish center, flowers in pairs in the leaf axils on slender pedicels. Creeping rhizomes.
Alismataceae (Arrowhead)
Alisma subcordatum Water-plantain: Tiny white petals shaped like little arrows on multi-branched stems. Elliptic to ovate leaves. Several flattened achenes in a small ring.
Poaceae (Grass)
Leersia oryzoides Rice cutgrass: Rough, saw-toothed leaf edges and its spikelets 1/6-1/4 inch long, in panicle open with spreading to ascending branches or often partially to completely included by the uppermost leaf sheath. Ligule truncate, rather firm, 1 mm long.
Cyperaceae (Sedge)
Carex vulpinoidea Fox Sedge: Clump-forming, common pioneer. Leaves longer than stem; lowest leaves on the stem reduced to scales (aphyllopodic). Stems slender with whitish, thin sheaths that are conspicuously cross-wrinkled. Male flowers at the tips of the female spikelets.
Carex lacustris Common Lake Sedge: Leaves are coarse, M-shaped, bluish-green. 2-4 separate male spikes and 2-4 separate, short-stalked female spikes. Many-nerved, beaked perigynia up to 1/3 inch long. Nutlet is three-angled. Forms sterile colonies, flop over.
Scirpus atrovirens Green Bulrush (Dark Green Rush): Sturdy stems are roundly triangular with up to 10 stem leaves. Leaves are broad (1-2 cm.), green, and M-shaped. Achenes ellipsoid, triangular.